Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of age, menopause, anthropometry, nutrition and lifestyle on bone status of women of the Northern Mediterranean Region of Croatia, which is considered the Adriatic Coast of Southeast Europe.
Methods: Quantitative ultrasound measurement was performed on the women‘s right heel and the values of the primary parameters (the Broad Ultrasonic Attenuation and the Speed of Sound [BUA and SOS]) were obtained. Dietary data were assessed with specially designed semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Multiple regression analysis was employed to examine the influence of age and anthropometry, as well as hormonal and nutritional factors on BUA and SOS.
Results: In all female subjects, both primary parameters were predicted by menopause. Among nutrition and lifestyle factors, carbohydrates were significant predictors for BUA (β = -0.151, p < 0.05), and smoking is significant predictor for SOS (β = -0.113, p < 0.05). In premenopausal women, BUA is significantly predicted by body height (β = 0.71, p < 0.05) and body mass index (β = 1.44, p < 0.05). In postmenopausal women, both primary parameters are strongly predicted by age and anthropometric parameters. Besides, SOS is significantly predicted by smoking (β = -0.18, p < 0.01) and alcohol (β =-0.13, p < 0.05). Besides, SOS is significantly predicted by smoking (β = -0.18, p < 0.01) and alcohol (β = -0.13, p < 0.05).
Conclusion: Bone quality in women from the Croatian Mediterranean Region mostly depends on their hormonal status. When the effect of menopause is controlled, bone status becomes dependent on age and anthropometry.