A review was done of nanotechnology as it applies to dentistry today. Information was gathered from literature search, research data and material inserts in products. Nanotechnology deals with the physical, chemical and biological properties of structures and their components at nanoscale dimensions. One of the biggest contributions to restorative and aesthetic dentistry has been nanocomposites. These composites are characterized by filler-particle sizes ≤ 100 nm and offer aesthetic and strength advantages over the current microfilled and hybrid resin-based composites. Nanoparticles for coating implant surfaces and the nanopatterning of dental implants are leading to better osseointegration and improved physiologic functions of implants, while nanophase hydroxyapatite has improved its adaptation into bone graft sites. Nano-biochips are now making oral cancer screening and diagnosis of diseases by saliva easier and more affordable.