Objective: Uterine atypical leiomyomas (ALs) are extremely rare and occur in an age group almost one decade earlier than that for leiomyosarcomas. According to the literature, extensive clinicopathologic studies on ALs were limited to only two studies (2, 8). Atypical leiomyomas of the uterus are well-defined neoplasms with smooth muscle cells. The aim of this study was to investigate clinicopathologic findings in 54 cases diagnosed with ALs as well as Ki-67 and p53 expressions immunohistochemically.
Methods: Fifty-four cases diagnosed between 2000 and 2013 were included. The histological and clinical features of the cases were reviewed, and their medical records were examined. Ki-67 and p53 were performed on all cases immunohistochemically.
Results: The average age of the patients was 41.8 years. The average clinical follow-up period was 57 months. Hysterectomy was performed in 31 patients, and myomectomy in 21 patients, while resection of the mass was performed in two patients due to the intraligamentary mass. The average size of the neoplasms was 6.2 cm. Severe cellular atypia was noticed in 25 patients. While the number of mitoses was 1/10 high power field in 30 patients, it was 4/10 high power field in six patients. Ki67 was found to be positive in 50 patients at the rate of 1–5% immunohistochemically, while p53 demonstrated staining at the ratio of 10–15% staining in four patients.
Conclusion: The differentiation of ALs from leiomyosarcomas is crucial. The recurrence rate after follow-up is 2%. In our opinion, the patients diagnosed with ‘AL with limited experience’ before should be correctly diagnosed as AL. We recommend that Ki-67 and p53 can be used as adjuvant markers immunohistochemically in the patients where a problem in differential diagnosis from leiomyosarcoma exists.