Leukemoid reaction is characterized by an elevation in neutrophil levels in peripheral blood and is defined as a total leukocyte number exceeding 50,000/mm3. An increase in mature neutrophils occurs in peripheral blood in Leukemoid reaction. A 70-year-old man was referred to us due to development of leukocytosis. His history revealed that the mass had begun beneath the armpit 2 months previously and had spread rapidly. At physical examination his general condition was poor, and he was conscious, oriented and cooperative. Yellow-colored, painful, ulcerated and necrotized masses with discharge, attached to the skin and approximately 16x13 cm in size were determined in the left axilla. A painful, ulcerated, hemorrhagic mass with discharge attached to the skin and appearing to begin beneath the ear lobe, 10x9 cm in size, was determined below the ear. White cell count was 100,000 mm3. Ninety percent segmented neutrophils, 6% non-segmented neutrophils, 1.1% lymphocytes, 2.3% monocytes, 0.2% basophils and 0.3% eosinophils were determined at peripheral smear. Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase score was high. Squamous cell carcinoma with paraneoplastic Leukemoid reaction is an exceedingly rare combination. This case report was intended to remind physicians of the condition.
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