A 58-year-old female patient whose Serological test results were HBsAg negative and HBsAb positive, diagnosed with multiple myeloma. Autologous hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation was subsequently performed after induction chemotherapy. One year later the patient was diagnosed as hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation and was started on lamivudine oral therapy. HBsAg is negative and HBsAb is positive in patients scheduled for chemotherapy, HBV DNA levels should still be investigated. Patients in the risk group should be started on prophylactic antiviral therapy. Lamivudine can be used in treatment in patients who have not received prophylactic antiviral therapy who develop HBV reactivation during or after chemotherapy.
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