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Analysis of Water Used For Haemodialysis In Dialysis Centers, South East Nigeria – How Adequate?




Background: Standard water purity is one of the essential ingredients in achieving the goals of haemodialysis. However, water purity, though cardinal to the outcome of haemodialysis is probably the most neglected aspect of renal replacement therapy with haemodialysis.

Methods: A total of eight haemodialysis centers were studied. Water samples were analysed from three points A) water storage tank B) an outlet in the piping connection between the water storage tank and reverse osmosis machine and C) an outlet piping between the reverse osmosis machine and haemodialysis machine. Samples from A and B were referred to as pretreated water while samples from C were referred to as post treated water. These samples were tested for aluminum, calcium and magnesium using colorimeter; potassium and sodium using flame photometer; chloramines, nitrate and free chlorine using colometric method. Water samples were also cultured in tryptone glucose extra agar at 37 oC for 48 hours. Endotoxin analysis was done using limulus Amaeboctye assay.

Results: Borehole was the commonest source of water for haemodialysis, 63%. Treated water was tested for chemical and bacteriological contaminations every three months in 50% of the centers, every six months in 25% and rarely in 12.5%. One centre never tested their water. Combination methods were used in all the centers for water treatment. Mean concentration of aluminum (0.35 ± 0.06), chloramines (0.84 ± 0.88) and nitrate (2.54 ± 2.07) exceeded the Association for Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI) recommendation. The microbial counts were within AAMI recommendation level.

Conclusion: Water purification in our environment is not optimal. This calls for serious concern.



11 Sep, 2015
e-Published: 10 Mar, 2016


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