Stewart-Treves syndrome (STS) is defined as a lymphangiosarcoma in a setting of postmastectomy upper extremity lymphedema. On the other hand, positivity of nontreponemal and treponemal syphilis tests can occur in some healthy conditions and diseases besides syphilis. Here we report a case of chronic lymphedema that progressed to STS in a 68–year old woman with a previous subtotal mastectomy, associated axillar lymph node dissection, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The patient also had false-positive syphilis tests, and increased tissue coagulation factors and products. Our report aims to explain the possible relationship between the false-positive syphilis tests and the coagulant factors, and the potential facilitating role of these factors triggering the formation of precipitants and ultimately the development of the malignancy.
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