HIV infection continues to be a significant health problem in the Caribbean region. With the availability of antiretroviral drug treatment, it is becoming increasingly important to identify clinical markers for deterioration from infection to disease. Psychiatric symptoms are well recognized as a complication of HIV infection. Three cases are presented to suggest that the occurrence of HIV related mania may herald the transition from HIV infection to AIDS. This is relevant in assessing the course of the disorder and could indicate that the psychiatric manifestation of neurotropic infection represents a distinguishing marker for the diagnosis of AIDS perhaps before other clinical signs are evident.