Objectives: Renal cell carcinoma with tumor thrombus involving the inferior vena cava is a refractory condition, on which debates remain in terms of choices of surgical treatment as well as survival. This article aims to present the recent development of the surgical management and the prognosis of this condition.
Design of study: Pertinent literature in terms of surgical treatment of renal cell carcinoma with tumor thrombus involving the inferior vena cava is systematically reviewed.
Results: Surgical techniques for the management of renal cell carcinoma have undertaken numerous modifications in order to minimize trauma, facilitate complete removal of tumours and promote long-term survival. Recently, minimally invasive approaches have been developed and successfully applied in the patients. As a result, patients’ survival has been considerably improved.
Conclusions: The surgical techniques of the IVC tumor thrombus have been steadily improved aiming at reducing the surgical difficulty, reducing the surgical complications and promoting long-term survival. The survival is significantly related to the nature of the tumor (such as size, level, scale, and metastasis, etc). More efforts are being taken for further innovations of the surgical technique in terms of mini-trauma, lower cost, and long-term survival.
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