Globally, diabetes mellitus and hypertension are major causes of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Reports from the Caribbean renal registry have also identified diabetes mellitus and hypertension as the leading causes of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal failure. Chronic non-communicable diseases including chronic kidney disease continue to be a major financial challenge in the Caribbean. Patients with chronic kidney disease have high rates of healthcare utilization, morbidity and mortality, and hence constitute a significant economic and clinical burden to the healthcare system. Emphasis should be placed on ways to reduce the incidence of kidney disease and the progression to dialysis. The most economically feasible form of renal replacement therapy that offers the best quality of life should be sought.