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Vol 60, Issue 4 (2011) - Special Issue on WIMJ 60th Anniversary, 1951-2011

Congratulatory Messages

Original Articles

  • T Hassell, A Hennis
    The United Nations High Level Meeting (UNHLM) will be an historic event where world leaders will address the increasing global burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Its mandate is ‘to address the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases worldwide, with a particular focus on developmental and other challenges, and social and economic impacts, particularly for developing countries’. The Caribbean has played a leadership role in convening the UNHLM and, as a region significantly impacted by the NCD epidemic, may potentially benefit from the meeting outcomes.
  • TA Samuels, CJ Hospedales
    CARICOM convened the only Heads of Government Non-communicable Diseases Summit and then successfully advocated for the global-level United Nations High Level Meeting on NCDs in September 2011. Implementation of the Port-of-Spain NCD Declaration is related to population size and regional supports.
  • K Theodore
    This paper attempts to explain how chronic noncommunicable diseases affect the functioning of the economic system and how the working of the economy in turn influences the incidence of CNCDs in particular countries. Suggestions are then given regarding the alignment of economic and health policies to support the prevention and management imperatives presented by the CNCDs.
  • TS Ferguson, MK Tulloch-Reid, NO Younger, SR McFarlane, DK Francis, RJ Wilks
    This paper reviews the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases (CNCDs) in the Caribbean within the framework of the global burden of CNCDs and provides recommendations for strategies to combat the epidemic within the region.
  • MO Owolabi
    Africa bears a heavy burden of stroke. In this paper, a stroke quadrangle is proposed comprising demographic surveillance and stroke research network, integrated community-based primary and secondary prevention programmes, easily accessible and wellequipped acute stroke care services and neuro-rehabilitation centres and services.
  • TS Ferguson, DK Francis, MK Tulloch-Reid, NOM Younger, SR McFarlane, RJ Wilks
    This paper provides an update on the burden of cardiovascular disease risk factors in Jamaica using data from the most recent national health survey. The burden of cardiovascular disease remains high with prevalence of hypertension, 25%; diabetes, 8%; hypercholesterolaemia, 12%; obesity, 25% and overweight, 27%.
  • TS Ferguson, MK Tulloch-Reid, NO Younger, SR McFarlane, DK Francis, RJ Wilks
    This paper reviews the epidemiology of prehypertension in Jamaica and lessons learnt from three national surveys and two cohort studies conducted by the Tropical Medicine Research Institute’s Epidemiology Research Unit.
  • N Brathwaite, A Brathwaite, M Taylor
    Data from the 2001 Bahamas Living conditions survey were analysed to determine whether differences exist in adult obesity by socio-economic status in The Bahamas. Findings show that females of lower socioeconomic status had the greatest vulnerability for obesity. National programmes that promote healthy lifestyles should target this group.
  • L Schwiebbe, J van Rest, E Verhagen, RWM Visser, J Kist-van Holthe, RA Hirasing
    There is a high prevalence of obesity in children in Bonaire. Effective measures are urgently needed to prevent obesity and overweight; these should focus on stimulating healthy eating habits and more physical activity.
  • FJ Henry
    Strategies to prevent obesity in the Caribbean should focus on policy actions in various sectors to change the environment. This will allow individuals better opportunities to make healthier lifestyle choices.
  • E Morris, N Unwin, E Ali, L Brathwaite-Graham, TA Samuels
    High prevalence of Non-communicable Disease risk factors (physical inactivity, unhealthy diets, obesity, alcohol use, and hypertension) was demonstrated among staff at Cave Hill, The University of the West Indies, in Barbados, with 54% having ≥ 3 risk factors. Rates were similar to those of the general Barbadian population.
  • D Grosvenor, A Hennis
    This article reviews the work of the Barbados Eye Studies, their contribution to the epidemiology and public health importance of glaucoma in the Englishspeaking Caribbean, and suggests policies to improve detection and management of the disease.
  • AK Soyibo, L Roberts, EN Barton
    The leading causes of bhronic kidney disease in the Caribbean are hypertension and diabetes mellitus. The incidence of these two non-communicable diseases is rising in the Caribbean and prevention methods must be scaled-up to decrease the morbidity and mortality associated with them.
  • D Eldemire-Shearer, K James, C Morris, D Holder-Nevins, H Lawes, M Harris
    The challenges of increasing chronic diseases and ageing populations demand political will and collaborative approaches at programmatic and policy levels.
  • HA McDavid, N Cowell, A McDonald
    Using a hybridized social-ecology model, this paper argues that criminal violence in Jamaica is a form of social contagion that can only be addressed by multidisciplinary, multi-level policy initiatives.
  • WD Abel, M Richards-Henry, EG Wright, D Eldemire-Shearer
    Despite limited resources, Jamaica has successfully integrated mental health into primary care.
  • KEW Hagley
    Cigarette smoking has been identified as a high risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, coronary heart disease, strokes and peripheral vascular disease. It results in the intensification of the vascular diseases of hypertension and diabetes. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, established by the World Health Organization in 2003, with its wide ranging recommended strategies and activities, offers a comprehensive approach towards reducing the impact on health by tobacco use. Countries should mobilise governments and civil society to implement the treaty.
  • SR Maharaj
    Access to an adequate level of healthcare is a function of affordability to both providers and users including the indigent. The primary healthcare strategy was envisaged as a holistic approach to improve the population’s quality of life. The more recent Millennium Development Goals are a further initiative with the same objective.

Viewpoint

  • SR Maharaj, TJ Paul
    Allocating scarce resources to competing sectors has always been a major challenge for policy-makers, planners and administrators. As the cost of healthcare continues to escalate and the burden of diseases make faster demands on the budget, there has been greater recourse to public debate on the issue. A major underpinning of this debate focusses on the ethical issues inherent in the decision-making process as they affect life, living and death – all in the context of “quality of life”.
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