Objective: This was a biochemical and histopathological investigation of the effect of distilled water on oxidative injury induced with ischaemia/reperfusion in rabbit kidneys.
Methods: Rabbits were divided into four groups: renal ischaemia (RI), renal ischaemia-reperfusion (RIR), renal ischaemia induced and reperfusion initiated with distilled water (RIRW) and a sham operation (SO) group. With the exception of the SO group, ischaemia was induced with a clamp affixed to the renal arteries in all rabbits. Distilled water was applied to the renal arteries in the RIRW group after clamp removal. Reperfusion was established subsequently in the RIRW and RIR groups. Histopathological and biochemical examinations were performed on renal tissues extracted.
Results: Biochemical experiment results from the kidney tissues of SO, RI, RIR and RIRW groups revealed malondialdehyde (MDA) levels of 1.46 ± 0.12, 2.4 ± 0.1, 3.53 ± 0.13 and 1.76 ± 0.06 μmoL/g protein and glutathione (GSH) levels of 6 ± 0.57, 3.5 ± 0.42, 1.75 ± 0.3 and 5.83 ± 0.6 nmoL/g protein, both respectively. Histopathological experiment results revealed haemorrhage and slight swelling in renal tissue of the IR group and significant necrosis in tubular epithelial cells, hyaline cast deposition, interstitial inflammation and large numbers of apoptotic bodies in the RIR group. While mild necrosis was observed in the RIRW group, no apoptotic bodies, interstitial inflammation or hyaline cast deposition were encountered.
Conclusions: Our study indicates that the use of distilled water can be beneficial in protecting against injury caused in the kidneys by the ischaemia/reperfusion procedure in surgical interventions.