Objective: To discuss cerebral sinovenous thrombosis (CSVT), an important mortality and morbidity factor, developing in the progression of ulcerative colitis (UC) in childhood age, in the light of the literature.
Methods: A search of PubMed and Google Scholar database was conducted on April 2014. This study retrospectively investigates the cases diagnosed with UC with complication of CSVT below 18 years of age between years 1971 and 2014. The cases were analysed with respect to age, gender, disease duration and treatment, potential risk factors, clinical findings, location of thrombosis, thrombolytic therapeutical applications, and clinical progressions.
Results: Twenty-four paediatric patients aged 5 and 18 years were included in the study. Cerebral sinovenous thrombosis had developed during active disease period in 23 (95.8%) patients. The most common complaints were headache (79.1%) and emesis (29.1%). The most frequently detected risk factors for CSVT were anaemia (58.3%) and thrombocytosis (45.8%). Inherited thrombotic disorders were encountered in 10 (41.6%) of the cases. The most common location sites for CSVT were the transverse (33.3%) and the sigmoid (33.3%) sinuses. It had been discovered that 19 (79.2%) of the cases were healed completely without a sequelae, whereas neurological sequelae remained in three (12.5%) of the cases and two (8.3%) of the cases died.
Conclusion: In the presence of a prior diagnosis of UC and emergency presentation with emesis, headache, mood changes and particularly seizure, the presence of CSVT should certainly be considered.