Objective: To evaluate the effect of Fe3O4 nanoparticles coating by biocompatible compound on their toxicity and also comparison by uncoated nanoparticles.
Methods: The co-precipitation method was used in order to synthesize Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The synthesized nanoparticles were coated by BSA (Bovine serum albumin) and DMSA (Dimercaptosuccinic acid) and the coating interactions were investigated by FTIR. Nanoparticles properties were evaluated by AGFM (Alternating Gradient Force Magnetometer), TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope) and XRD (X-Ray Diffraction). Toxicity assessment of nanoparticles were studied in mice by intra peritoneally injections. Liver enzymes (SGPT, SGOT, ALP, and LDH) and also kidney factors (uric acid, creatinine and urea) were measured 7, 15 and 30 days post injection.
Results: The nanoparticles size was around 5 to 11 nm. Results showed that the amount of urea and creatinine were significantly increased seven days post injection in the group received high doses. The amount of uric acid reduced significantly in all groups in comparison with the control. Fe3O4 nanoparticles also caused histologic changes in the kidney including accumulation in glomerulus, nephron wall cells, internal nephron canal and kidney blood vessels and also inflammation cells in glomerular capillaries and degeneration of proximal and distal tubules. Some liver enzymes were changed due to the injection of both uncoated and coated nanoparticles to mice. The liver enzymes changes were more considerable in the groups received DMSA or DMSA coated in comparison with the groups received BSA or BSA coated. There is not any irreversible effect in concentrations less than 200 mg/kg for all control and treated groups.
Conclusion: It seems that Fe3O4 nanoparticles have a short-term effect on kidney and liver function. By the gradual elimination of particles uptake into the kidney most effects disappeared during a month.