Objective: Obesity is a major modifiable risk factor for atherosclerosis. Thus, early risk markers are needed to identify obese subjects. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between body composition and arterial stiffness documented by Doppler-derived renal resistive index (RRI).
Subjects and methods: We enrolled 120 newly-diagnosed hypertensive patients (mean age 45 ± 8 years) who were admitted to our Nephrology Clinic. Body fat percentage (BFP) was measured by bioelectrical impedance (BIA). Doppler examinations were performed and RRI was calculated for all participants
Results: The female patients had higher RRI than male patients (0.69 vs 0.65, p ≤ 0.05). The study patients were divided into three groups according to their BFP defined by BIA. Group three patients, who exhibited higher body fat, had significantly higher body mass index [BMI] (p < 0.05), total leukocyte count (p < 0.05), C-reactive protein [CRP] (p < 0.05), triglyceride (p < 0.05), and female predominance. Group 3 patients were statistically older than Group 1 patients (46.2 vs 40.6 years, p < 0.05). Additionally, RRI levels were higher in Group 3 than in Group 1 [0.69 vs 0.65, p < 0.05] (Table 3). In logistic regression analysis, independent factors affecting RRI were age, gender, BFP and CRP levels (all p-values were < 0.05).
Conclusions: Body fat percentage was associated with higher RRI, in hypertensive patients. Altered renal haemodynamic profile is involved in the long-term renal risk associated with body fat distribution.