Bone deposition, for any implant system, is the deciding factor for the success. The biochemical signals at the cellular level will help elucidate the direction of host response. In this report, intercellular messenger, cytokines, that are regulatory for osteoblast and osteoclast function, were measured. Production of osteocalcin, a marker for osteoblast maturation was also estimated. Human osteoblastlike cells from osteosarcoma cell line MG 63 were grown in wells in the presence of titanium (Ti), titanium alloy (Ti6A14V) and stainless steel implant materials incubated at 370C. Interleukin- 1α (IL-1α), IL-6, IL-8, IL-11 and osteocalcin were quantitated using standard enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) kits from the growth media extracted at specific intervals over the critical ten day period.
In all dishes, cells were seen adhering to the base after 24 hours and to confluence at 96 hours. Both IL-1α and IL-11 were not produced in sufficient quantities to be measured in the assay (< pg/ml). Interleukin-6 production was significantly higher for stainless steel than for titanium and the alloy.
There was a progressive rise in osteocalcin production for titanium contrasted to a basal rate for stainless steel and alloy. Interleukin-8 levels for all metals and controls increased markedly after two days implicating inherent cellular characteristics. A relatively high constant range for macrophage colony stimulating factor from the first day was seen for all metals, including the controls. In conclusion, it appears that titanium implants activate osteocalcin production while stainless steel activates IL-6.