Objective: To determine the prevalence of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) abnormalities and contributing factors in adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus at the diabetic clinic of public hospital, Guyana.
Methods: A prospective study was carried out on 60 randomly selected diabetic patients from the public hospitals’ diabetic clinics. Patients were included in the study once they had to get tested for ALT and GGT on their request form from the physician and their informed consent. Analysis was done using SPSS 20.
Results: Analysis of ALT and GGT showed mean ALT ± SD as 61.9 ± 28.9 (95% CI: 54.5, 69.4) and mean GGT ± SD as 19.6 ± 9.7 (95% CI: 17.1, 83.3). Family history (RR 2.3 95% CI: 0.6, 8.6) showed a greater risk factor of high ALT followed by current illness (RR 1.3 95% CI: 0.4, 4.7). Correlation analysis between ALT and GGT shows a significant positive correlation.
Conclusion: The research showed a prevalence of elevated levels of ALT and GGT in type 2 diabetic patients and a strong association to metformin and ethnicity in particular those of Indian decent. Therefore, further research within a controlled environment should be done in order to evaluate the efficacy of the action of metformin as compared to other diabetic drugs in concert with other contributing factors.