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Severity and Outcomes in Association with Known Exposures and Susceptibilities among Afro-Caribbean Patients with Hospital-acquired Acute Kidney Injury

Journal Authors: 
Issue: 
DOI: 
10.7727/wimj.2018.154
Pages: 
35-46

 

ABSTRACT 

Objective: To investigate the severity and outcomes associated with known exposures and susceptibilities in Afro-Caribbean patients with hospital-acquired acute kidney injury (HA-AKI).

Methods: This was a single centre hospital-based cohort study. Acute kidney injury was diagnosed and staged by the criteria of Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes.

Results: Among 107 Afro-Caribbean patients who were newly diagnosed with HA-AKI within a one-year period, hypertension (51.4%) and diabetes mellitus (34.6%) were the most common co-existing susceptibilities. None of the selected susceptibilities led to a higher demand for renal replacement therapy (RRT) or a higher risk of 90-day mortality, except in a small subgroup with underlying malignancy in which 12 out of 28 (42.9%) demised at ≤ 90 days after AKI (odds ratio (OR): 2.36; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05, 5.87; p = 0.05). The risk for the requirement for dialysis was nine-fold higher if the patient had oliguria/anuria (OR: 9.06; 95% CI: 3.06, 29.04; p ≤ 0.001). Oliguria/anuria was also found to be a major risk factor for 90-day mortality (OR: 4.46; 95% CI: 1.83, 10.84; p < 0.001). Sepsis was the most frequent exposure (66%) with a high chronic kidney disease conversion rate of 25.7% (OR: 1.296; 95% CI: 0.70, 2.38). Patients with HA-AKI and sepsis had a three-fold higher mortality among hospitalized patients with AKI (OR: 2.87; 95% CI: 1.05, 7.87; p = 0.03). Both complicated non-cardiac major surgeries and cardiac surgeries were significantly associated with requirement for RRT (57.1% versus 56.3% and OR: 5.01; 95% CI: 1.04, 24.1; p = 0.02 versus OR: 6.02; 95% CI: 1.95, 18.57; p ≤ 0.001, respectively). The requirement for RRT in patients with HA-AKI was also significantly associated with admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) (42.1%; OR: 4.6; 95% CI: 1.54, 13.77; p = 0.004), systemic hypotension (OR: 5.86; 95% CI: 2.07, 16.62; p = 0.001) and haemorrhagic shock (OR: 5.78; 95% CI: 1.63, 20.51; p = 0.003). The former two groups carried a significantly higher 90-day mortality rate (OR: 6.22; 95% CI: 2.15, 17.99; p ≤ 0.001 versus OR: 5.54; 95% CI: 2.14, 14.33; p ≤ 0.001, respectively).

Conclusion: We observed that certain exposures (such as sepsis, oliguria, systemic hypotension, haemorrhagic shock, ICU admission and complicated major surgeries) had a significant influence on severity and adverse renal outcomes and this was independent of susceptibilities.

Accepted: 
03 Jan, 2019
PDF Attachment: 
e-Published: 16 Jan, 2019
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