Objectives: To investigate the trends in incidence and histological distribution of oesophageal carcinoma in Kingston and St Andrew (KSA), Jamaica, over the 30-year period 1978‒2007.
Methods: All oesophageal carcinomas registered in residents of KSA during the study period were extracted from the Jamaica Cancer Registry (JCR), and the following were collected for each case: gender, age, basis of diagnosis, year of diagnosis, histological subtype and subsite. The data were used to calculate age specific incidence rates and age-standardized incidence rates (ASRs). The results were compared to those from other countries.
Results: Oesophageal carcinoma was more common among males than females and both genders showed decreasing incidence over the 30-year period. The highest ASRs (males, 4.0 per 100 000; females 2.6 per 100 000 per year) were recorded in the 1978‒1982 reporting period and the lowest (males, 1.7 per 100 000 per year; females 0.6 per 100 000 per year) in the 2003‒2007 period. The leading histological subtype among both genders was squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and this subtype showed a decrease in incidence in both genders over the period of review. Adenocarcinomas, the second commonest histological subtype, showed a decrease in ASR over time in females, and a rise in males.
Conclusions: Incidence rates of oesophageal carcinomas overall have decreased in KSA, Jamaica, and this trend is mirrored by the SCC subtype. However, while adenocarcinoma ASR is decreasing in females, it is increasing in males. These data support the need for investigation into the risk factors for oesophageal adenocarcinoma in Jamaica.
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