Anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) monoclonal antibodies have become an invaluable treatment against chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, due to increased risk of opportunistic infections, patients receiving anti-TNF therapy should be closely monitored for serious infections. Here, we describe a case of acute Salmonella enteritidis infection of a joint arthroplasty that previously was functioning well, in a patient receiving infliximab treatment for RA. After prolonged antimicrobial chemotherapy and interrupted infliximab treatment, reimplantation of a new prosthesis was successfully performed two years after Salmonella septic arthritis. Therefore, because of the possibility of extraintestinal salmonellosis, screening for fecal colonization could be advisable in patients undergoing anti-TNF treatment. Moreover, we emphasize the importance of appropriate counselling of these patients concerning food hygiene.