Objective: To describe associations between the prevalence of periodontal disease severity and coexistence of systemic disease(s) and a smoking habit amongst periodontal referrals in a Caribbeancatchment area of patients.
Methods: A total of 100 patients completed a medical history questionnaire and were categorized forperiodontal disease severity, using clinical and radiographic parameters for association with the prevalenceof systemic diseases.
Results: Twenty-two per cent presented with moderate periodontal disease (M/F ratio: 1:2.7). 68% ofpatients examined presented with severe periodontal disease (M/F ratio: 1:1.35). Amongst patients of the same mean age of 48 years presenting with moderate or severe periodontal disease, there was a two-fold increase in the number of missing teeth, amongst patients with severe periodontal disease. In this category there was twice the proportion of smokers and twice the number of mobile teeth, compared with those with moderate periodontal disease. In addition, there was twice the prevalence of diabetics and three times the proportion of patients with combined systemic diseases amongst those with severe periodontal disease, compared with those presenting with moderate periodontal disease, who were predominantly hypertensive or had rheumatoid arthritis. A history of smoking, diabetes mellitus and a combined manifestation of systemic diseases appeared to be more prevalent amongst those with severe periodontal disease. All these findings were significant (p < 0.001).
Conclusion: An association between severity of periodontal disease and co-existence of systemic diseases may have implications for a unified therapeutic strategy for health.