Objectives: The purpose of the study was to determine the period prevalence of acute renal failure (ARF) after coronary bypass surgery (CABG) at the University Hospital of the West Iindies and to identify risk factors.
Method: A retrospective analysis of patients who underwent CABG during the period 1994-2004 was done. Data collected included; age, gender, weight, the presence of hypertension (HTN), diabetes mellitus (DM), hypercholesterolaemia, previous myocardial infarction (MI), blood pressure on admission, urea and creatinine one year prior to surgery, on admission for surgery and post-surgery, duration of intra-operative hypotension, duration of cardiopulmonary bypass, perfusion pressure and the perioperative medications.
Results: The case notes of 62 patients (68.9%) were obtained for analysis. There were 47 (75.8%) males and 15 females (24.2%) – a 3:1 ratio. The prevalence of HTN and DM in the study sample was 78% and 72% respectively, hypercholesterolaemia was 31% and a previous MI was 29%. There were no differences based on gender. Post CABG complications were: persistent postoperative hypotension (6.8%), congestive cardiac failure (CCF) (6.8%), arrhythmia (6.8%), sepsis (6.8%), lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) and pleural effusion (5.1%), heart block (3.4%), pulmonary embolism (1.7%), cellulitis and haematoma formation were 1.7% . Three patients had increases in postoperative creatinine values > 89 μmol/L over the postoperative value resulting in a prevalence of ARF of 5%. One of the three patients died and none received dialysis. There were no statistical difference in pre-operative clinical and biochemical characteristics based on the presence or absence of ARF. The presence of diabetes and increased length of stay were significant predictors of increasing postoperative creatinine values adjusting for pre-operative creatinine values. In addition, the presence of diabetes mellitus and male gender were significant predictors of increasing postoperative urea values.
Conclusion: DM is a significant risk factor for the development of ARF post CABG.