Objective: The objective of the study was to analyse the effect of smoking on periodontal disease in diabetic
Methods: One hundred and fifty patients participated in the study. Fifty patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) and periodontal disease were the first group; 50 patients with Type 2 DM and periodontal disease were the second group, and 50 non-diabetic patients with periodontal disease were the third group. After anamnesis was taken, the variable in the analysis was smoker/non-smoker. The status of the oral hygiene and periodontal condition was recorded using Plaque index, Supragingival calculus index, Subgingival calculus index, Gingival index, Periodontal Disease Index and Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs, by the periodontologist.
Results: Except Gingival index, mean values of all investigated indices were higher in smokers in all investigated groups.
Conclusion: Periodontal disease is more advanced in diabetic smokers compared to diabetic non-smokers. It can be concluded that smoking negatively affects the course of diabetic periodontal disease and increases the risk of attachment loss. Diabetic smokers are at high risk for poor periodontal prognosis, and they should be included in careful periodontal treatment.