Zika virus causes Guillain-Barre Syndrome and microcephaly. Clinical and laboratory diagnosis is complicated. Population-based research can elucidate ZIKV epidemiology, vertical transmission, fetal risks of maternal ZIKV infection and natural history of congenital and non-congenital ZIKV infection provided by the activities in “ZIKAction” research consortium, recently funded by the European Commission.
KR Webster-Kerr, CDC Christie, A Grant, D Chin, H Burrowes, K Clarke, I Wellington, K Shaw, W De La Haye
The Zika virus epidemic in Jamaica is evolving and includes cases of Guillain-Barré Syndrome and reports in pregnant women. Zika may become endemic in Jamaica, similar to dengue and chikungunya. Safe and effective dengue, chikungunya fever and ZIKV vaccines are needed to mitigate the devastating effects of these three diseases.
M Rezaei, F Karimi, N shariatifar, I Mohammadpourfard, E Shiri Malekabad
This study showed that the essential oils possess both bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity against some of the Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria when tested in vitro and may be effective on other bacteria.
O Cikman, S Taysi, MT Gulsen, E Demir, M Akan, H Diril, HA Kiraz, M Karaayvaz, M Tarakcioglu
This study investigates the effects of the addition of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) and thymoquinone on oxidative and nitrosative stress in the liver tissue of irradiated rats. Thymoquinone and CAPE decrease oxidative and nitrosative stress markers and have antioxidant effects, which also increase antioxidant capacity in the liver tissue of irradiated rats.
K Mason, F Gibson, R Gardner, L Warren, C Fisher, D Higgs, M Happich, A Kulozik, I Hambleton, BE Serjeant, GR Serjeant
The history and evolution of laboratory technology for newborn screening for sickle cell disease is reviewed with particular reference to Jamaica. The procedures and results of screening 54 566 newborns from southern and western Jamaica are presented.
K Fletcher, I Tennant, CA Walters, H Harding-Goldson
This was an observational study of red cell transfusions in intensive care unit patients at the University Hospital of the West Indies (UHWI). It was found that UHWI did not demonstrate a restrictive transfusion practice as defined by the TRICC trial, but was not as liberal as other countries.
M Goudarzi, M Fazeli, M Azad, SS Seyedjavadi, R Mousavi, M Rashidan, E Azargashb
This study aimed to investigating the frequency of integrons as a marker of antibiotics resistance and MDR in P aeruginosa isolates from burns patients and their associates with existence of different classes of integrons
The resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa occurred pending treatment of patients, is a great danger. Detection of beta-lactamases and monitoring antibiotic susceptibilities are extremely important for the selection of appropriate empirical antibiotic therapy in P aeruginosa infections.
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive disease of the pulmonary vascular bed, and right heart failure is the leading cause of death. Treatment with vasoactive agents is crucial for these patient groups. We aimed to evaluate our treatment approach in patients with PAH patients as a tertiary centre.
The GRACE risk score, which was developed in a predominantly Caucasian population, was not previously tested in a Caribbean population. This study found it to be a reliable predictor of in-hospital mortality in a multi-ethnic Trinidadian acute coronary syndrome population, making it a useful risk stratification tool.
This was a retrospective study with quantitative and qualitative components evaluating risk factors for prostate cancer and health-seeking behaviour of men in western Jamaica. Two hundred and four men were interviewed and twenty men took part in two focus groups.
This study has identified several sociodemographic and health-seeking behavioural factors associated with prostate cancer screening among men in Jamaica. This information can be used to design interventions to increase prostate cancer screening and decrease prostate cancer morbidity and mortality.
N Johnson, A-K Taylor-Christmas, V Chatrani, E Choo-Kang, M Smikle, R Wright-Pascoe, K Phillips, M Reid
This paper reports on obstetric outcomes of subjects, diagnosed with subclinical hypothyroidism, who were treated with l-thyroxine, and seeks to determine if these outcomes were equivalent to those of euthyroid subjects.
The study demonstrated that trona causes fetal loss. This could be attributed to the chemical constituents especially sodium and calcium. This effect is possibly via oestrogen-dependent mechanism. This study mainly focussed on the potentials of trona to cause fetal loss and its associated mechanism.
Our results indicate that the smaller 10 nm gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are mostly taken up and accumulate in different rat organs, suggesting the induced toxic effects which is supported by histological investigation; while the larger 50 nm GNPs are retained in the blood of rats.
HIV/AIDS causes global morbidity and mortality and its related discrimination/stigma can affect the management of those infected. Unfortunately not much work has been done in Nigeria to ascertain the extent of discrimination/stigma occurring in the place of work.
X Zeng, C Xu, M Li, J Xia, M Liu, P Zhu, D Xiang, Y Wang
This study assesses the value of Fibroscan and fibrosis serum models, including aspartate transaminase to platelet ratio index (APRI), in predicting significant liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B infection compared with liver biopsy.
Lamivudine, an effective oral antiviral agent, inhibits the replication of hepatitis B virus by blocking reverse transcriptase enzyme. Administering lamivudine is an effective and convenient method of early treatment.
K Wang, J-D Lin, C-H Hsu, T-T Chao, C-Z Wu, C-H Hsieh, D Pei, Y-J Liang, Y-L Chen
Chronic hepatitis C is a protective factor against having metabolic syndrome and this effect might be due to lower triglyceride level in the elderly. Further studies are warranted for the underlying mechanisms.
The prevalence of birth defects in Grenada is low in comparison to Jamaica, as well as other developing and developed countries. Cardiovascular malformations were the most prevalent in this five-year study period.
The fronto-transverse sonographic technique was established as a feasible technique for the measurement of fetal interorbital distance (IOD). There was good correlation between IOD and other fetal biometric parameters. The regression equation of GA = 6.24 + 4.89 1OD was used to predict the GA.
CU Eze, HC Ugwu, C U Eze, K Ochie, IU Nwadike, C Otika
Accurate prediction of ovulation is important in the management of female infertility. Sonographic observation of complete disappearance of a dominant follicle and reduction in follicular size of surrogate follicles after follicular rupture appeared to be more reliable predictors of imminent ovulation than merely measuring follicular dimensions.
B Uslu, F Gurbuz, F Temiz, B Yuksel, N Mungan, AK Topaloglu
Fasting and postprandial glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and C-peptide levels in 25 newly diagnosed Type 1 diabetic children were not different from 22 healthy children used as control. This suggests that plasma GLP-1 levels play no role in the pathogenesis of Type 1 diabetes.
The trunk control training of children with cerebral palsy (CPC) in the sitting posture is still one of the main purposes of cerebral palsy rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to observe the role of a Tecnobody balancing instrument in improving the trunk controlling ability of CPC and its efficacy in assessment in CPC.
S Akbayram, M Parlak, M Dogan, G Karasin, HT Akbayram, K Karaman
Typhoid fever is a common and widely distributed food-borne disease that is a global major public health problem. This study was undertaken in order to determine the clinical and haematological presentation of typhoid fever in children.
M Moallem, H Parsian, A Mosapour, SR Hosseini, H Nooreddini, Z Shirkhani K, M Pouramir
Use of simple serum based tests to classify healthy individuals from patients with osteopenia/osteoporosis is gaining interest. It seems that the “Osteo-Pars” equation has reasonable benefit in discriminating healthy individuals from osteopenia/osteoporosis patients.
It has been suggested that low-level mean platelet volume (MPV) in humans may be related to secondary thrombosis due to inflammation. For this reason, MPV can be used as a marker showing inflammation in the body. In this study, we found a strong association between MPV and erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein in patients with rheumatic diseases. Thus, MPV may be used as a negative acute-phase reactant in rheumatic diseases.
A cohort of 122 patients was selected via quota sampling and surveyed using a structured questionnaire to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice in relation to their disease and to compare these attributes between patients receiving or not receiving nutrition counselling.
The male:female ratio at birth (M/F: male divided by total births) approximates 0.515. In The Bahamas, Barbados, Puerto Rico, Trinidad and Tobago, and Mauritius, M/F from 1960–2009 was only 0.5106 (95% CL 0.5101, 0.5110). There were no secular trends in M/F.
Live male births slightly exceed females (M/F). This ratio is influenced by many factors. This study analysed live births (1995–2012, n = 52 601 559) in the United States of America. Southern states had a higher proportion of Black births and significantly lower M/F. This may be due to chronic stress due to disadvantaged socio-economic conditions.
Cleft lip and palate is a common congenital defect that is associated with various functional, aesthetic and psychosocial problems. In this article, we sought to share a brief overview of the management of cleft lip and palate in the United Kingdom, particularly aimed at non-specialists.
The characteristics of Leptospira interrogans are analysed and seroprevalence data regarding vectors in Grenada are then assessed from a secondary source. A literature review is then conducted into interventions which can best be suited to Grenada.
This article presents the case of patient who was treated for B cell lymphoma. Remission was achieved, but three years later the diagnostic procedures revealed relapses of B cell lymphoma in the breast parenchyma.