Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of childhood Type 1 diabetes (DM) on ocular parameters.
Subjects and methods: Forty-six children with Type 1 DM without diabetic retinopathy (Group 1) and 76 healthy children (Group 2) were included in the study. Routine eye examinations and fundus photography were performed. Central corneal thickness (CCT), contract ultrasonic pachymetry and intraocular pressure (IOP) were measured. Retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness was measured in four separate quadrants. Central 1-mm maximum retinal thickness and minimum full retinal thickness at the foveal pit (MFRT) were measured with the same Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography. Data for the two groups were then compared.
Results: One hundred thirty-five children were included. Mean CCT and IOP values did not differ significantly between the groups (p > 0.05). Minimum foveal thickness (p < 0.05) and MFRT (p = 0.008) measurements in Group 1 were significantly lower compared to those in Group 2. No significant difference was determined between the groups in terms of mean, inferior, superior, nasal or temporal MFRT (p > 0.05).
Conclusion: Variations may arise in IOP and CCT in children with Type 1 DM. Neurodegenerative processes in the retina may begin before the onset of diabetic retinopathy.