Objective: Gymnosporia royleana (G royleana) Wall ex MA Lawson, locally known as (Sur Azghee), is traditionally used for the management of various diseases. In the current investigation, we made an effort to scientifically validate its traditional use in various pathological conditions, such as microbial infections and cancer, and to explore its additional pharmacological activities via random screening against locally accessible pharmacological methods, irrespective of its traditional uses like antidiabetic, haemagglutination and antioxidant assays.
Methods: Extraction was carried out using a cold maceration methodology. Dilution method was used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing using different concentrations. Streptozocin (STZ) induced protocol was used to assess antidiabetic activity at a dose level of 200, 400 mg/ kg. Antioxidant activity, haemagglutination activity, and anticancer activities against HepG-2 and MCF-7 cell lines were determined as per established protocols. Similarly, the maximum amount of phenolic content (12.02 mg 100 g) was determined by using Folin Ciocalteu assay.
Results: Promising antimicrobial activities in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were noted for crude extract (25‒200 µg/mL), n-hexane (100‒400 µg/mL), ethyl acetate (50‒200 µg/mL) and aqueous (100‒400 µg/mL). Antidiabetic potential was significant at a dose level of 200‒400 mg/kg bodyweight by reducing the blood glucose level at days 10 and 15. The percentage of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) values increase by increasing the concentration of the plant extract (10‒100 µg/mL). The methanol extract was found to possess high agglutination activity.
Conclusion: It was concluded that this plant species possess significant antimicrobial, antidiabetic, antioxidant, anticancer and haemagglutination activities, which could be attributed to the phenolic content of the extract.