Background: Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is the most common malignancy in childhood. Although some prognostic factors have been defined to date, the estimation of prognosis is currently not perfect. Previous studies had shown an association of FLT3 with poor prognosis and CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein α (CEBPA) mutation with the development of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). Here, we aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of FLT3-ITD and CEBPA mutations in ALL.
Methods: Sixty-one patients with ALL were included in the study. The patients were divided into three risk groups according to BFM risk classification. All of the patients were examined for FLT3 ITD mutations and 45 of them for CEBPA mutations. Mutation positive and negative patients were compared in terms of their risk groups, translocations and cell lineage. The clinical courses of the patients were appraised.
Results: FLT3-ITD mutation was detected in 3 of the 61 patients, and CEBPA mutations were detected in 11 of the 45 patients. The incidence of established prognostic indicators including BFM risk classification, t(9; 22); BCR-ABL, t(1; 19); E2A-PBX1, t(12; 21); TEL-AML1, t(4;11); MLL-AF4 were similar between FLT3-ITD and CEBPA positive and negative patients. A patient with an FLT3-ITD mutation was very susceptible to pancytopenia after maintenance treatment and two other patients with FLT3-ITD mutations were more prone to febrile neutropenia.
Conclusion: Our results suggested that CEBPA or FLT3-ITD mutations might not be related to ALL prognosis in the sampled Turkish patients. However, FLT3-ITD mutation might have an influence on the response of bone marrow to chemotherapy.