Background: Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease that affects patients’ general health and well-being in various ways. Modification of lifestyle is essential in preventing Type 2 diabetes including its secondary complications.
Objective: This study assessed the profile, health behaviour and quality of life of patients presenting with Type 2 diabetes and attending the diabetic clinics of Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Lagos State and the Ring Road State Hospital, Ibadan.
Subjects and Method: A total of 100 diabetic patients aged between 40 and 85 years participated in this study. Their physical activity levels were determined by using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ); quality of life (QOL) was assessed using the Diabetes Quality of Life (DQOL) Inventory questionnaire and alcohol and smoking status as well as nutrition patterns were assessed using the Alcohol, Smoking and Nutrition Questionnaire (ASNQ). Age, gender, body mass index, waist circumference, waist-hip-ratio and blood pressure were also reported. Data were presented using descriptive statistics of mean, standard deviation, percentages and are presented in figures and tables.
Results: Results showed that most of the participants were overweight and/or obese with 62% having a body mass index greater than 25 kg/m2. About 78% of females showed a waist circumference of > 88 cm while 48% of the male participants had a > 92 cm waist circumference. Ninety-seven per cent of the female participants had a waist-hip ratio above 0.85 while 32% of the males had above 1.0 waisthip ratio. Using the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC 7) classification for hypertension, 49% of the participants were found to be at stages 1 and 2 hypertension by systolic blood pressure while 43% of the participants were at stages 1 and 2 hypertension by diastolic blood pressure. Sixty-two per cent of the participants revealed a low physical activity level, 34% had a moderate physical activity level while 4% had a high physical activity level. All the participants indicated that they neither consumed alcohol nor smoked at the time of the study. Thirty-four per cent of the participants had adequate quantities of fruit, 31% of them also consumed an adequate quantity of legumes and 73% of them ate an adequate quantity of fish per week. Fifty-eight per cent of the participants took less quantities of salt with their food as compared to their peers while 95% of the participants did not add sugar to their food; 79% of them preferred their food boiled. The mean score of the participants’QOL was 31.85 ± 7.98 out of a total score of 75. The QOL as reported by the participants thus indicated a fairly good quality of life.
Conclusion: Patients with Type 2 diabetes were generally found to be overweight, obese, sedentary and were frequently found to be hypertensive. It is, therefore, suggested that patients need to pay attention to their weight by participating in weight reduction programmes and also improve their physical activity levels in order to reduce their risk of developing the complications associated with Type 2 diabetes.