In this prospective cross-sectional study, ultrasonography was used to repeatedly measure kidney sizes by different observers in order to determine the level of inconsistency within and between replicate measurements of kidney size by a single and different observers. Replicate sonographic measurements by a single observer are more consistent, and therefore, more reliable than replicate measurements by different observers.
D Simms-Stewart, T Hunter, H Fletcher, V DaCosta, C Walters, M Reid
There is good correlation between residents’ ultrasonographic estimation and actual birthweight at the University Hospital of the West Indies. The difference in correlation between senior and junior residents was insignificant.
A second transurethral resection of bladder tumour (TURBT) is suitable for muscle-invasive bladder cancer when bladder preservation is planned as it prolongs survival time and improves the quality of patients’ lives.
MAM Marie, J John, L Gowda Krishnappa, S Gopalkrishnan, SR Bindurani, P CS
Interleukin-6, gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and adenosine deaminase (ADA) were investigated as diagnostic tools in pleural effusion. Our results suggest that there is a remarkable difference in production of these three markers in exudative pleural effusions as compared to transudative pleural effusions. However, diagnosis based on culture would be still the gold standard.
We report that in sickle cell disease, both spot and two-hour timed urine collections for measurements of albumin concentration or albumin:creatinine ratios are good proxy measures of total 24-hour albumin excretion. These much simpler, and likely more cost-effective, methods can be applied in clinical practice with confidence.
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-6, accumulated almost exclusively in the myogenic lineage, possesses important functions in myogenesis. The changes of FGF-6 expression in regeneration and repair process after exercise-induced muscle damage indicate that FGF-6 is closely related to skeletal muscle regeneration and repair.
Findings from this study suggest that impairment of reproductive function associated with thyroid dysfunction is in attendant with derangement of hormonal milieu and alteration in reproductive organs cytoarchitecture. Luteinizing hormone and oestradiol are implicated.
The changes of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and kinase insert domain-containing receptor (KDR) levels in the vitreous of diabetic rats were related to the early retinopathy induced by diabetes.