Objective: This cross-sectional study evaluated the association of plasma cytochrome c (CytoC) and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α, as mitochondrial dysfunction and cellular hypoxia biomarkers with disease risk factors and prognosis in Saudi Type 2 diabetic patients.
Methods: Eligible 252 patients (94 males/158 females) and socioeconomically-, age- and body mass index (BMI)-matching 106 healthy participants (71 males/35 females) were voluntarily anonymously enrolled. They were BMI, disease duration- and treatment-wise subgrouped. Lipid and glycaemic control indices were colorimetrically measure to calculate insulin resistance (IR) and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP). Haemoglobin A1c, CRP, CytoC and HIF-1α were measured using specific immunoassays.
Results: Among patients, 50% (38.6% of males & 52.5% of females), 40.476% (43.2% of males & 40.5% of females), 4.365% (6.8% of males & 3.8% of females), 2.381% (4.6% of males & 1.9% of females), and ~0.8% (males) suffered peripheral neuropathy, ophthalmopathy, kidney disease, myocardial infarction and ketoacidosis, respectively. Majority of complicated cases had higher age, BMI, disease duration and plasma insulin and AIP and on insulin. The two investigated groups were non-significant different considering CytoC but highly significantly different considering lipid profile as reflected on AIP, glycaemic control parameters as reflected on IR, plasma CRP and HIF-1α - with significant correlations amongst all of them in a group specific pattern.
Conclusion: Patients suffered high rate of complication that correlated age, BMI, disease duration, AIP, plasma insulin and insulin treatment due to poor disease control. Reduced HIF-1α and non-significant increased cytochrome c levels correlated negatively with bad prognostic indictors of the disease pointing to a pathogenetic implication.
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