Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of diabetic foot complications among patients at a specialist diabetes clinic in Jamaica and identify factors associated with foot complications.
Methods: A stratified random sample of 188 patients were interviewed and examined between 2009 and 2010. Trained nurses obtained demographic and clinical data, measured anthropometrics and performed foot examinations including inspection for amputations, ulcers or infection and assessment of pain, vibration and pressure perception.
Results: Participants included 143 women and 45 men (mean age 56 years; mean diabetes duration 16 years). The prevalence of amputations was 8.5% (95% CI 4.5, 12.5%) and was higher among men (22.2%) compared to women (4.2%, p < 0.05). Prevalence of current ulcers and current foot infections was 4.3% and 3.7%, respectively. Overall, 12% of patients had at least one of these foot complications. Foot complications were more prevalent among men, patients with high blood pressure (BP ≥ 130/80 mmHg) or peripheral neuropathy. In multivariable logistic regression models, factors associated with foot complications were: neuropathy (OR 9.3 [95% CI 2.8, 30.3]), high BP (OR 7.9 [1.3, 49.7]) and diabetes duration (OR 1.32 [1.02, 1.72]).
Conclusion: Approximately one of every eight patients in this specialist clinic had a major foot complication. Associated factors were neuropathy, high blood pressure and longer duration of diabetes.