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Latitude Gradients and Secular Trends in Sex Ratios at Birth: Europe and North America and a Global Overview

The sex ratio at birth is in overall decline in Europe and North America. However, this decline has reversed in Mexico and stabilised in the United States. There was a temporary significant rise in M/F in Central Europe following Chernobyl.


Objective: In all continents, latitude gradients and secular trends have been found in the male-female ratio at birth (M/F: male births divided by total births), which is anticipated to approximate 0.515.

Methods: Annual national data for countries comprising Europe and North America for male and female live births were obtained from the World Health Organisation and analysed with contingency tables.

01 May, 2017
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e-Published: 18 May, 2017


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