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V Grech

Latitude Gradients and Secular Trends in Sex Ratios at Birth: Europe and North America and a Global Overview

DOI: 
10.7727/wimj.2017.093
Pages: 
Synopsis: 
The sex ratio at birth is in overall decline in Europe and North America. However, this decline has reversed in Mexico and stabilised in the United States. There was a temporary significant rise in M/F in Central Europe following Chernobyl.

ABSTRACT

Objective: In all continents, latitude gradients and secular trends have been found in the male-female ratio at birth (M/F: male births divided by total births), which is anticipated to approximate 0.515.

Methods: Annual national data for countries comprising Europe and North America for male and female live births were obtained from the World Health Organisation and analysed with contingency tables.

Accepted: 
01 May, 2017
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Journal Authors: 
e-Published: 18 May, 2017

Disclaimer

Manuscripts that are Published Ahead of Print have been peer reviewed and accepted for publication by the Editorial Board of the West Indian Medical Journal. They may appear in their original format and may not be copy edited or formatted in the style guide of this Journal. While accepted manuscripts are not yet assigned a volume, issue or page numbers, they can be cited using the DOI and date of e-publication. See our Instructions for Authors on how to properly cite manuscripts at this stage. The contents of the manuscript may change before it is published in its final form. Manuscripts in this section will be removed once they have been issued to a volume and issue, but will still retain the DOI and date of e-publication.

Israel Exhibits a Homogenous Male to Female Ratio at Birth for All Races and Religions

DOI: 
10.7727/wimj.2016.472
Synopsis: 
The proportion of male live births may fall with stress. This paper fails to find evidence of stress using the gender ratio at birth in Israel, when the country is studied by race or religion.

ABSTRACT

Objective: Male live births occur in excess of female live births and their ratio (M/F) is usually expressed as male divided by total births. The value of M/F varies, declining with stress. Israel has been shown to have a relatively stable M/F. This study was carried out in order to ascertain whether there were any racial or religious differences in M/F in Israel, and to compare with totals for Europe and North America.

Accepted: 
05 Oct, 2016
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Journal Sections: 
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e-Published: 02 Nov, 2016

Disclaimer

Manuscripts that are Published Ahead of Print have been peer reviewed and accepted for publication by the Editorial Board of the West Indian Medical Journal. They may appear in their original format and may not be copy edited or formatted in the style guide of this Journal. While accepted manuscripts are not yet assigned a volume, issue or page numbers, they can be cited using the DOI and date of e-publication. See our Instructions for Authors on how to properly cite manuscripts at this stage. The contents of the manuscript may change before it is published in its final form. Manuscripts in this section will be removed once they have been issued to a volume and issue, but will still retain the DOI and date of e-publication.

Racial Differences in Seasonal Variation in Election and Non-election Years in the Male to Female Ratio at Birth in the United States

DOI: 
10.7727/wimj.2016.204
Synopsis: 
The male-to-female birth ratio varies seasonally. United States births by gender and race (2003-13, n=45138496) were analysed. Seasonality may have been disturbed/reduced in most years due to elections. Black births were unaffected possibly due to chronic, socio-economic stress.

ABSTRACTS

Objective: In humans, male births exceed female births. This ratio is conventionally expressed to M/F and is influenced by a large number of factors, including stress. This study was carried out in order to ascertain whether the known seasonal variation in M/F in the United States (peaking in June) is affected by the quadrennial elections (November), and whether any such influences vary by race.

Accepted: 
15 Jun, 2016
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Journal Authors: 
e-Published: 29 Jun, 2016

Disclaimer

Manuscripts that are Published Ahead of Print have been peer reviewed and accepted for publication by the Editorial Board of the West Indian Medical Journal. They may appear in their original format and may not be copy edited or formatted in the style guide of this Journal. While accepted manuscripts are not yet assigned a volume, issue or page numbers, they can be cited using the DOI and date of e-publication. See our Instructions for Authors on how to properly cite manuscripts at this stage. The contents of the manuscript may change before it is published in its final form. Manuscripts in this section will be removed once they have been issued to a volume and issue, but will still retain the DOI and date of e-publication.

Seasonal Variation by Race in the Male to Female Ratio at Birth in the United States

DOI: 
10.7727/wimj.2015.279
Synopsis: 
Births by gender and by race for 2003-13 for the US showed more male births in Asians, followed byWhites and American Indian/Alaska Native populations. Significant seasonality was present (June peak) for Whites more than Black/African American.

ABSTRACT

Objective: In humans, male exceed female live births. This ratio is conventionally referred to (M/F) male to female ratio and is used to denote male divided by total births. This ratio is influenced by a large number of factors and has been shown to exhibit seasonality. This study was carried out in order to ascertain whether seasonal variation in M/F exists in United States and whether such variations are influenced by race.

Accepted: 
30 Sep, 2015
PDF Attachment: 
Journal Sections: 
Journal Authors: 
e-Published: 24 Mar, 2016

Disclaimer

Manuscripts that are Published Ahead of Print have been peer reviewed and accepted for publication by the Editorial Board of the West Indian Medical Journal. They may appear in their original format and may not be copy edited or formatted in the style guide of this Journal. While accepted manuscripts are not yet assigned a volume, issue or page numbers, they can be cited using the DOI and date of e-publication. See our Instructions for Authors on how to properly cite manuscripts at this stage. The contents of the manuscript may change before it is published in its final form. Manuscripts in this section will be removed once they have been issued to a volume and issue, but will still retain the DOI and date of e-publication.

Reduced Male:Female Ratio at Birth in Small Islands

Issue: 
DOI: 
10.7727/wimj.2014.195
Pages: 
177–9
Synopsis: 
The male:female ratio at birth (M/F: male divided by total births) approximates 0.515. In The Bahamas, Barbados, Puerto Rico, Trinidad and Tobago, and Mauritius, M/F from 1960–2009 was only 0.5106 (95% CL 0.5101, 0.5110). There were no secular trends in M/F.

ABSTRACT

Background: The male:female ratio at birth (M/F: male births divided by total births) is anticipated to approximate 0.515. The M/F in Micronesia in the Pacific Ocean has been noted to be higher than anticipated. This study analysed M/F in island populations available from a World Health Organization dataset.

Accepted: 
06 Sep, 2014
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e-Published: 28 Oct, 2015

State and Regional Differences in the Male-to-female Ratio at Birth in the United States, 1995–2012

Issue: 
DOI: 
10.7727/wimj.2014.284
Pages: 
180–4
Synopsis: 
Live male births slightly exceed females (M/F). This ratio is influenced by many factors. This study analysed live births (1995–2012, n = 52 601 559) in the United States of America. Southern states had a higher proportion of Black births and significantly lower M/F. This may be due to chronic stress due to disadvantaged socio-economic conditions.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: In humans, live male births slightly exceed females and this ratio is conventionally expressed as male live births divided by total live births (M/F). A wide variety of factors have been shown to influence M/F including latitude, stress, socio-economic status and race. This study was carried out in order to ascertain whether there are differences in M/F in different states and in different geographical regions in the United States of America (USA).

Accepted: 
29 Oct, 2015
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e-Published: 15 May, 2015

The Male-female Birth Ratio in California and the 1992 April Riots in Los Angeles

Issue: 
DOI: 
10.7727/wimj.2014.338
Pages: 
223–5
Synopsis: 
Stress induces spontaneous abortions that affect male fetuses more than female fetuses. The April 1992 Los Angeles riots constituted six days of civil unrest. This study showed that male births in California State dipped following this event.

ABSTRACT

Accepted: 
23 Mar, 2015
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e-Published: 24 Mar, 2015

The Influence of Migration on Secular Trends in Sex Ratios at Birth in Cuba in the Past Fifty Years

Issue: 
DOI: 
10.7727/wimj.2013.336
Pages: 
368–72
Synopsis: 
This paper highlights a temporal relationship between Cuban migration and male to female live birth ratio (M/F), with M/F dipping in response to the possibility of leaving Cuba, often followed by sharp rises associated with a predominantly male efflux from the country.
ABSTRACT
 
Background: Secular trends have been found in the male-female ratio at birth (M/F: male births divided by total births) in various countries and this ratio is anticipated to approximate 0.515.
Methods: Annual national data for male and female live births in Cuba with contingency tables were obtained from the World Health Organization and analysed.
Revised: 
04 Apr, 2014
Accepted: 
14 Apr, 2014
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e-Published: 05 May, 2014
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