Close Menu

Books in a Library

K Bulan

A Girl with Joubert Syndrome: Association of Endocrinological Abnormality and New Radiological Findings


The Editor,


 An eight and half-year old girl was referred to endocrinology outpatient clinic due to onset of puberty. There was consanguinity between parents who had no history of such disease. She had a ventriculoperitoneal shunt due to congenital hydrocephaly.

09 Oct, 2015
16 Oct, 2015
PDF Attachment: 
Journal Sections: 
e-Published: 16 Oct, 2015


Manuscripts that are Published Ahead of Print have been peer reviewed and accepted for publication by the Editorial Board of the West Indian Medical Journal. They may appear in their original format and may not be copy edited or formatted in the style guide of this Journal. While accepted manuscripts are not yet assigned a volume, issue or page numbers, they can be cited using the DOI and date of e-publication. See our Instructions for Authors on how to properly cite manuscripts at this stage. The contents of the manuscript may change before it is published in its final form. Manuscripts in this section will be removed once they have been issued to a volume and issue, but will still retain the DOI and date of e-publication.

How Approprıate are the Lengths of Syringe Needles Used for Subcutaneous Injections to the Children at School Age?

This study showed that nowadays, relatively shorter pen needles compared with those previously used are recommended for subcutaneous insulin therapy. Currently, the available shortest pen needles for subcutaneous injections is 4 mm in length, each. Even when the shortest pen needle is used, the risk for intramuscular injection during subcutaneous injection is 50% in boys aged 6–8 years, while it is 25% in those aged 9–12 years and 13–17 years for each. It is 25% in all the three age groups among the girls. Smaller pen needles can help to achieve more accurate subcutaneous injections.


Objectives: To define the normal ranges of the thicknesses of the skin and subcutaneous tissues via ultrasonography, and determine whether the current syringe needle-lengths used for the subcutaneous injections were appropriate.

18 May, 2015
PDF Attachment: 
Journal Sections: 
e-Published: 15 Oct, 2015
Subscribe to RSS - K Bulan
Top of Page