Close Menu

Books in a Library


Racial Differences in Seasonal Variation in Election and Non-election Years in the Male to Female Ratio at Birth in the United States

The male-to-female birth ratio varies seasonally. United States births by gender and race (2003-13, n=45138496) were analysed. Seasonality may have been disturbed/reduced in most years due to elections. Black births were unaffected possibly due to chronic, socio-economic stress.


Objective: In humans, male births exceed female births. This ratio is conventionally expressed to M/F and is influenced by a large number of factors, including stress. This study was carried out in order to ascertain whether the known seasonal variation in M/F in the United States (peaking in June) is affected by the quadrennial elections (November), and whether any such influences vary by race.

15 Jun, 2016
PDF Attachment: 
Journal Sections: 
Journal Authors: 
e-Published: 29 Jun, 2016


Manuscripts that are Published Ahead of Print have been peer reviewed and accepted for publication by the Editorial Board of the West Indian Medical Journal. They may appear in their original format and may not be copy edited or formatted in the style guide of this Journal. While accepted manuscripts are not yet assigned a volume, issue or page numbers, they can be cited using the DOI and date of e-publication. See our Instructions for Authors on how to properly cite manuscripts at this stage. The contents of the manuscript may change before it is published in its final form. Manuscripts in this section will be removed once they have been issued to a volume and issue, but will still retain the DOI and date of e-publication.

Subscribe to RSS - seasons
Top of Page