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Toda-Yamamoto causality test

Energy Consumption and Economic Development in Caribbean SIDS


This article examines the direction of causality between energy
consumption and economic development in thirteen Caribbean small
island developing states, using annual data from 1980 to 2011. We
estimate a multivariate model that includes environmental emissions and
we utilise the Toda-Yamamoto approach to Granger causality testing to
determine causal links in each country. We find evidence of four different
types of causal relationships. These results have implications for

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