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Energy Consumption and Economic Development in Caribbean SIDS

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This article examines the direction of causality between energy
consumption and economic development in thirteen Caribbean small
island developing states, using annual data from 1980 to 2011. We
estimate a multivariate model that includes environmental emissions and
we utilise the Toda-Yamamoto approach to Granger causality testing to
determine causal links in each country. We find evidence of four different
types of causal relationships. These results have implications for

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