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Meningo-encephalo-myelitis in Children during the Zika Virus Epidemic in Grenada

Issue: 
DOI: 
10.7727/wimjopen.2017.227
Pages: 
43–6
Synopsis: 
Zika Virus is neurotropic. We report two children from the Caribbean Island of Grenada, a three-year-old with acute neuro-inflammation who had intractable seizures, meningo-encephalitis, CSF pleocytosis and Zika IgM positive acute serology and a four-year-old with acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis manifesting as generalized seizures, optic neuritis, diffuse cerebral dysfunction, encephalopathy, impaired speech and ataxia who also had CSF pleocytosis as well as Zika IgM and Dengue IgM positive acute serologies. Both cases occurred during the 2016 Zika and Dengue fever epidemic in Grenada. Both children recovered completely. The aetiologic role of the Zika and Dengue arboviruses is discussed.

Zika Virus is neurotropic. We report two children from the Caribbean Island of Grenada, a three-year-old with acute neuro-inflammation who had intractable seizures, meningo-enceph-alitis, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis and Zika Immunoglobulin M (IgM) positive acute serology and a four-year-old with acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis manifesting as generalized seizures, optic neuritis, diffuse cerebral dysfunction, encephalopathy, impaired speech and ataxia who also had CSF pleocytosis as well as Zika IgM and Dengue IgM positive acute serologies.

Accepted: 
December 18, 2017
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Outcome of Dengue in Hospitalized Jamaican Children

Issue: 
DOI: 
10.7727/wimjopen.2016.525
Pages: 
25-32
Synopsis: 
Before the emergence of Zika in 2016 and Chikungunya in 2014, there have been numerous Dengue outbreaks in the Caribbean. Despite this, there is a paucity of published studies on Dengue in children from this region. The potential for exponential spread of the Aedes aegypti dengue vector and its deleterious outcomes in children underlines the importance of this paper.

Background: Dengue fever is hyper-endemic in Jamaica with exponential rates of infection in successive outbreaks. The absence of local data and the potential for massive outbreaks in a country where a third of the population are children formed the basis for this study. 

Accepted: 
December 26, 2015
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Journal Sections: 

Chikungunya in Jamaica – Public Health Effects and Clinical Features in Children

Issue: 
DOI: 
10.7727/wimjopen.2016.529
Pages: 
18-24
Synopsis: 
The Chikungunya fever epidemic had significant public health and economic impact in Jamaica. In children, there were characteristic presentations in neonates and young infants and in children six months to six years. Neurologic involvement was common but other organ dysfunction was rare.

Background: Chikungunya virus entered the Caribbean for the first time in 2013 and Jamaica experienced its maiden epidemic with Chikungunya fever in 2014. We aimed to describe the public health effects and describe the clinical features in children and adolescents in Jamaica.

Accepted: 
October 26, 2016
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Unravelling the Paediatric and Perinatal Zika Virus Epidemic through Population-based Research

DOI: 
10.7727/wimjopen.2016.454
Pages: 
1-4
Synopsis: 
Zika virus causes Guillain-Barre Syndrome and microcephaly. Clinical and laboratory diagnosis is complicated. Population-based research can elucidate ZIKV epidemiology, vertical transmission, fetal risks of maternal ZIKV infection and natural history of congenital and non-congenital ZIKV infection provided by the activities in “ZIKAction” research consortium, recently funded by the European Commission.

Zika virus epidemic now involves 72 countries, worldwide. Transmission is multimodal through mosquito bites and blood and body fluids. ZIKV causes Guillain Barre Syndrome and pregnancy complications including perinatal microcephaly. Diagnosis is complicated by subclinical infection in 80%, co-circulation with dengue and chikungunya fevers with similar presentations and cross-reactivity in serological tests. There is no cure, or preventive vaccine.

Accepted: 
August 23, 2016
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