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microcephaly

Emergence of Zika Virus Epidemic and the National Response in Jamaica

Issue: 
DOI: 
10.7727/wimjopen.2016.488
Pages: 
5-11
Synopsis: 
The Zika virus epidemic in Jamaica is evolving and includes cases of Guillain-Barré Syndrome and reports in pregnant women. Zika may become endemic in Jamaica, similar to dengue and Chikungunya. Safe and effective Dengue, Chikungunya fever and ZIKV vaccines are needed to mitigate the devastating effects of these three diseases.

Background: Jamaica, along with the Americas, experienced major epidemics of arboviral diseases transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquito in recent years. These include: Dengue fever in 2012, Chikungunya fever in 2014 and Zika virus infection (ZIKV) in 2016. We present the emergence of the ZIKV epidemic in Jamaica and outline the national response.

Accepted: 
September 28, 2016
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Unravelling the Paediatric and Perinatal Zika Virus Epidemic through Population-based Research

DOI: 
10.7727/wimjopen.2016.454
Pages: 
1-4
Synopsis: 
Zika virus causes Guillain-Barre Syndrome and microcephaly. Clinical and laboratory diagnosis is complicated. Population-based research can elucidate ZIKV epidemiology, vertical transmission, fetal risks of maternal ZIKV infection and natural history of congenital and non-congenital ZIKV infection provided by the activities in “ZIKAction” research consortium, recently funded by the European Commission.

Zika virus epidemic now involves 72 countries, worldwide. Transmission is multimodal through mosquito bites and blood and body fluids. ZIKV causes Guillain Barre Syndrome and pregnancy complications including perinatal microcephaly. Diagnosis is complicated by subclinical infection in 80%, co-circulation with dengue and chikungunya fevers with similar presentations and cross-reactivity in serological tests. There is no cure, or preventive vaccine.

Accepted: 
August 23, 2016
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Trends of Microcephaly and Severe Arthrogryposis in Three Urban Hospitals following the Zika, Chikungunya and Dengue Fever Epidemics of 2016 in Jamaica

Issue: 
DOI: 
10.7727/wimjopen.2017.124
Pages: 
33-42
Synopsis: 
Newborns with the characteristics of congenital syndrome associated with Zika virus (CSAZ) are being born in urban hospitals after the 2016 Zika virus epidemic in Jamaica. Phenotypic features include microcephaly, craniofacial disproportion, neuro-imaging and neuro-pathological findings and arthrogryposis. A trend towards babies being delivered with small head circumferences, but not yet in the range of microcephaly and others with normal head sizes who were born to women who were symptomatic in pregnancy is also being observed. While, most babies with probable CSAZ are being born to asymptomatic women who did not report any symptoms related to arbovirus illness in pregnancy. Diagnosis is challenged by serological cross-reactivity between circulating flaviviruses. Team management is multidisciplinary to maximize the neuro-developmental potential of this vulnerable patient population.
Introduction: Jamaica experienced its maiden Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic in 2016, while Dengue (serotypes 3 and 4) and Chikungunya were also circulating.
 
Aim: We describe initial trends in microcephaly and arthrogryposis observed by the clinicians from three urban birthing facilities during late 2016 to early 2017.
 
Accepted: 
December 12, 2016
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