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Jamaica

Outcome of Dengue in Hospitalized Jamaican Children

Issue: 
DOI: 
10.7727/wimjopen.2016.525
Pages: 
25-32
Synopsis: 
Before the emergence of Zika in 2016 and Chikungunya in 2014, there have been numerous Dengue outbreaks in the Caribbean. Despite this, there is a paucity of published studies on Dengue in children from this region. The potential for exponential spread of the Aedes aegypti dengue vector and its deleterious outcomes in children underlines the importance of this paper.

Background: Dengue fever is hyper-endemic in Jamaica with exponential rates of infection in successive outbreaks. The absence of local data and the potential for massive outbreaks in a country where a third of the population are children formed the basis for this study. 

Accepted: 
December 26, 2015
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Acute Paralysis and Neuro-inflammation in Jamaican Children during Zika virus and Dengue Epidemics of 2016

Issue: 
DOI: 
10.7727/wimjopen.2016.526
Pages: 
12-7
Synopsis: 
This case series suggests a unique clinical pattern of neuro-inflammation in Jamaican adolescents occurring during the ZIKV epidemic and questions the role of the three circulating arbo-viruses in the pathogenesis.

Dengue, Chikungunya fever (CHIKV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) are all transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquito and are currently circulating in Jamaica. Jamaica has been experiencing a ZIKV epidemic since February 2016. At the University Hospital of the West Indies (UHWI), Kingston, Jamaica, a cluster of five cases of paralysis attributed to neuro-inflammation was noted amongst adolescents admitted to the Institution. Three were diagnosed with acute myelitis and one each with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) and Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS).

Accepted: 
October 24, 2016
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Emergence of Zika Virus Epidemic and the National Response in Jamaica

Issue: 
DOI: 
10.7727/wimjopen.2016.488
Pages: 
5-11
Synopsis: 
The Zika virus epidemic in Jamaica is evolving and includes cases of Guillain-Barré Syndrome and reports in pregnant women. Zika may become endemic in Jamaica, similar to dengue and Chikungunya. Safe and effective Dengue, Chikungunya fever and ZIKV vaccines are needed to mitigate the devastating effects of these three diseases.

Background: Jamaica, along with the Americas, experienced major epidemics of arboviral diseases transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquito in recent years. These include: Dengue fever in 2012, Chikungunya fever in 2014 and Zika virus infection (ZIKV) in 2016. We present the emergence of the ZIKV epidemic in Jamaica and outline the national response.

Accepted: 
September 28, 2016
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Chikungunya in Jamaica – Public Health Effects and Clinical Features in Children

Issue: 
DOI: 
10.7727/wimjopen.2016.529
Pages: 
18-24
Synopsis: 
The Chikungunya fever epidemic had significant public health and economic impact in Jamaica. In children, there were characteristic presentations in neonates and young infants and in children six months to six years. Neurologic involvement was common but other organ dysfunction was rare.

Background: Chikungunya virus entered the Caribbean for the first time in 2013 and Jamaica experienced its maiden epidemic with Chikungunya fever in 2014. We aimed to describe the public health effects and describe the clinical features in children and adolescents in Jamaica.

Accepted: 
October 26, 2016
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Trends of Microcephaly and Severe Arthrogryposis in Three Urban Hospitals following the Zika, Chikungunya and Dengue Fever Epidemics of 2016 in Jamaica

Issue: 
DOI: 
10.7727/wimjopen.2017.124
Pages: 
33-42
Synopsis: 
Newborns with the characteristics of congenital syndrome associated with Zika virus (CSAZ) are being born in urban hospitals after the 2016 Zika virus epidemic in Jamaica. Phenotypic features include microcephaly, craniofacial disproportion, neuro-imaging and neuro-pathological findings and arthrogryposis. A trend towards babies being delivered with small head circumferences, but not yet in the range of microcephaly and others with normal head sizes who were born to women who were symptomatic in pregnancy is also being observed. While, most babies with probable CSAZ are being born to asymptomatic women who did not report any symptoms related to arbovirus illness in pregnancy. Diagnosis is challenged by serological cross-reactivity between circulating flaviviruses. Team management is multidisciplinary to maximize the neuro-developmental potential of this vulnerable patient population.
Introduction: Jamaica experienced its maiden Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic in 2016, while Dengue (serotypes 3 and 4) and Chikungunya were also circulating.
 
Aim: We describe initial trends in microcephaly and arthrogryposis observed by the clinicians from three urban birthing facilities during late 2016 to early 2017.
 
Accepted: 
December 12, 2016
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Health and Gender: What is the Situation with Older Persons and How Do We Address Healthcare Needs?

Issue: 
DOI: 
10.7727/wimjopen.2017.001
Pages: 
1-6
Synopsis: 
Older women in Jamaica have a disproportionately higher burden of chronic non communicable diseases. Gender sensitive approaches to health promotion and disease prevention are needed.

ABSTRACT

Objective: To examine the influence of gender on the health status of older Jamaicans and to identify key health-related determinants.

Methods: Nationally representative data were used to quantify gender differences for 10 chronic diseases and key determinants of health (ie lifestyle, social, financial, biological, healthcare utilization).

Accepted: 
March 8, 2017
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The Prevalence of Cognitive Impairment among Older Adults in Jamaica

Issue: 
DOI: 
10.7727/wimjopen.2014.003
Pages: 
71–6
Synopsis: 
We estimated the prevalence of cognitive impairment among older adults in Jamaica and identified associated factors. Less than one-third of persons had cognitive impairment and this was associated with older age, lower education and poorer health and physical functioning.

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study sought to document the prevalence of cognitive impairment among a nationally representative sample of community-dwelling older adults and determine associated factors.

Accepted: 
September 8, 2014
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Glycaemic Control among Patients with Diabetes in Primary Care Clinics in Jamaica, 1995 and 2012

Issue: 
DOI: 
10.7727/wimjopen.2014.085
Pages: 
99–102
Synopsis: 
The quality of care received by patients with diabetes in public primary care clinics in 2012 was compared with that received in 1995. There was improvement in the screening, monitoring and counselling of patients in 2012 compared to 1995. However, there was no improvement in glycaemic control.

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare the quality of care received by patients with diabetes in public primary care clinics in 2012 with that reported in 1995.

Accepted: 
June 6, 2014
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Patterns of Ocular Trauma Presenting to the University Hospital of the West Indies in Jamaica

Issue: 
DOI: 
10.7727/wimjopen.2014.096
Synopsis: 
This was a prospective, observational study done over a 14-month period on patients with ocular trauma referred to the Eye Unit. Eighty patients were recruited, 71.3% were males. The 18-35-year age group sustained 41.3% of the trauma. Males had an odds ratio risk of 1.37.

ABSTRACT

Objective: The purpose of this study is to identify the causes of ocular trauma, determine the groups at risk and types of injuries presenting to the Eye Unit at the University Hospital of the West Indies.

Accepted: 
April 23, 2014
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